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Sunday, 13 March 2011

PAD 160

CHAPTER 1
Define public administration (5M)
Public administration is a group of people working together to organize the public right. Public administration covers 3 branches which is executive, legislative and judicial. Public administration plays important roles in the transformation of public policy and it is part of political process. Public administration is important and it is different from private management. Public administration plays an important role as mediator for private groups and individual to deliver services to the society.

Discuss any 4 roles of public administration (25M)
First role is As the Main Motivator in The Country Development. Public administration acts as the main motivator and stimulator in the country. It helps to spread out social and economic development to every level of society. In developing country, government is considered as an agency that voice the public needs and help to generate new style in public administration which can solve  social and economic problems.
Second role is As a Organizer and Executor of Plan and Program. Public administration is used as an instrument to arrange plans and programs and later carry out them. Country resources can be fully utilize through a good economical and social programs and the success of the programs is depends on the effectiveness of public administration.
Third role is To Implement Government Policies. The government policies that were implement are the government activities that give effects to the country itself and its citizen. In former time, it is difficult to identify who is responsible to form policy as everyone try to get involve and try to influence the policy-making. However, now the task is clear which given to the administrator. Administration officer try to influence policy by analyzing UDA (Urban Development Authority). The mission of UDA is to organize the community and encourage the Bumiputras to involve in business sector. To achieve its mission, UDA administer has bought yhe available business space and rent/sell it to the public. However, if the price/rent of the available business space is high, the business will be participated by the people who afford to buy or rent that place. Therefore, the administer decision is important in determining public policy because they have the authority and experience in managing the whole community. Using the right power to interact with community will foster a good implementation of policy.
Forth role is Have Influence Towards Government Policy. One of the characteristic of public administration is, it involves political process and has influence in public policy. Public administration has close relation with the public as its duty to provide services to every individual in the community. Administer acts as the middle person between government and the public.


CHAPTER 2
Describe the development of Malaysia public administration before and after independence (25M)
The Malaysian Public Service formerly known as the Malayan Civil Service (MCS) has assumed a significant key role in the economic and social development of the country. Shaped by the country’s historical development and its social and political institutions, the Malaysian Public Service has had a remarkably interesting record. During the pre-independent period, the British introduced structures and practices to help provide various basic services to the public in order to maintain law and order which were aligned to the economic and political activities of the time. Those structures and practices set the foundation of the Malayan Civil Service.

With the aim of progressing towards self-determination after independence, the Malaysian Public Service has undergone many changes to re-orientate and evolve into a civil service structure that is relevant and progressive through the introduction of planned improvements and innovations to cope with the developments at that time as well as future needs. To date, the Malaysian Public service has staff strength of 1.2 million employees covering 28 schemes of service including the Federal Public Service, the State Public Services, the Joint Public Services, the Education Service, the Judiciary, the Legal Service, the Police and Armed Forces.

The Malaysian Civil Service inherited its legacy from the British Public Service with significant fundamental changes taking place over the last 50 years. Tracing briefly the history of the Malaysian Public Service, its establishment began in the late 1700 when the British East India Company acquired Penang. At that time the civil service attracted the best and brightest scholars from England to be appointed as administrative officers. The Northcote-Trevelyan Report of 1845 laid down the public service ethos which emphasised that a politically neutral civil service means complete loyalty to the government of the day regardless of its political complexion. A professional public service, should offer impartial and appropriate advice, devoted to the public interests and obedient to the Minister and Cabinet. Finally, the public service should provide continuous stability when there is a change in government. This basic tenet sets the tone of the Malaysian Civil Service for the past 50 years since independence.

The late 1800 saw the amalgamation of the civil services in the Federated Malay States and that of the Straits Settlements into a single unified service known as the Federated Malay States Civil Service (FMS). This was to provide a centralised administrative power with a common recruitment procedure that would allow officers to be appointed and deployed to the various Malay states. With this centralisation, the recruitment procedures were streamlined attracting equal if not better qualified candidates for appointment into the service which marked the beginning of a well organised and professional civil service.

The FMS expanded and opened its doors to Malay officers to form a subordinate service known as the Malay Administrative Service. By 1903, there were 332 Malays out of 6,607 employees in the government service. Raja Chulan b. Raja Abdullah who had earlier joined the government service as a Settlement Officer in Perak became the first Malay District Officer in Upper Perak, thus breaking the control of Europeans in the Service.

Under the expansion of the FMS and the Malay Administrative Service, many administrative reforms were introduced to upgrade and improve the service. Among others the Sterling Scheme, Stubb’s Salary and Classification and the Bucknill Commissions continued to define and refine the principles of service relating to the systems of remuneration, leave and pension and other terms of service.

When the British left Malaya during the Japanese occupation in 1941, the mettle of 85 of these officers who were of the Malay Administrative Service were tested when the administration of the country was left in their hands. They managed the country well and they continued to play an important role towards the nation’s independence in the 1950’s.

The beginnings of the formation of a unified public service started when other Colonial services such as the Medical, Education, Legal, Police to name a few were combined to establish the Colonial Administrative Service of which the MCS was now a component. The MCS later evolved into what is now known as the Administrative and Diplomatic Service (ADS), a premier service whose changing roles from that of a developmentalist to a facilitator and now as an innovator has been seen as instrumental in moving the country forward in attaining economic dominance, enhancing human capital development, addressing socio-economic inequalities, improving and sustaining life quality and strengthening institutions and implementation capacity.

The ADS generally described as ‘elite’ and ‘prestigious’ provides almost all the senior administrative officials at the federal and state levels. Its ‘generalist’ character where an officer will serve and function as administrators and policy implementers in various government agencies or ministries provides a general purpose perspective with a non-partisan role as advisors to the political appointees. This ‘generalist’ character of the ADS has had an adverse effect on the performance of the officers. As recent as the late 1990’s, the policy to recruit officers from multi-disciplinary academic backgrounds and emplacing them in relevant ministries or agencies has lessened to a certain extent the ‘generalist’ image of the ADS.

The MCS has its roots in the colonial administrative system established by the British. Thus, Malaysia “inherited” the civil service characterised by professionalism, ethos and not least the contribution of expatriates who remained in Malaysia in the 1950s and 1960s. Unlike some other colonial systems, the British preserved the traditional social structures and political institutions of the day with some adjustments. Even before independence, the British ensured that the Malay aristocracy and political elites were groomed for their roles in the colonial administrative system.

A significant move during the early years of independence was the policy of Malayanisation of the Public Service. This was in the forefront of the Alliance government’s agenda with the objective of completing Malayanisation by 1 July 1960. Finally on August 15, 1968, the Federal Establishment Office which was renamed the Establishment Office of Malaysia in 1967 adopted Public Service Department as the agency to oversee all matters relating to creation and restructuring of services to better serve the country’s developmental agenda.

The Public Service continued to play an important role in the years following Merdeka. Through the difficulties following the early years after Independence such as the Emergency, the troubles in 1969, and accommodating the needs of racial diversity of the population, the Public Service has been the steady guiding hand planning, maintaining, and executing government policies and programs aimed at achieving economic growth and social equity in the nation’s journey towards development and modernisation.

The Public Service has had a strong role in policies introduced and implemented in the industrial, agricultural and social sectors through the various 5-Year Plans and the New Economic Policy introduced in 1970 which helped maintain the balance between rural and industrial development, provided the impetus for further economic growth while managing the social implications of an ethnically diverse nation.

Throughout those years, the Public Service has evolved and met the challenges faced by the nation, adjusting, adapting and fine-tuning government political, economic, and social programs that contributed to the nation being one of the most modern and developed in the region. Not only has it kept the pace of development going, it has facilitated the nation’s thrust into the ranks of the higher income developing countries.

Since independence the Malaysian public service has assumed a multitude of roles in meeting the needs and expectations of the public and other stakeholders. The public service, with the strength of 1.2 million members, has assumed the roles of negotiator, controller and facilitator. In addition, it has also become the pace setter and the change agent for the country. In assuming these roles the public service needs to perform numerous duties which include delivering services, handling public interest, ensuring public security and safety, and community programmes.

Significantly the Malaysian Civil Service has over the years carved its name and is recognised as one of the best in the regions. It is credited for playing a key role in Malaysia’s development and modernisation. Generally, the governmental efforts made during the past decades, have produced favourable impacts in improving governance and the quality of services in the public sector.

In its efforts to meet the expectations of both the National Vision Policy and the National Mission spanning from 2001 to 2020, the Malaysian Public Service continues to redefine itself in these challenging times. Through the various tag lines such as “No Wrong Door Policy”, “Business is not as Usual” and the creation of PEMUDAH for improving public service delivery system by reducing bureaucratic obstacles and providing productive, creative and innovative services, it aspires to become a strong partner with the different sectors in creating wealth for the nation. All in all the Public Service has sought to be world-class and meet international benchmarks of performance and excellence.

CHAPTER 3
Explain the characteristics of Weber theory of bureaucracy (25M)
Weber coined this last type of authority with the name of a bureaucracy. The term bureaucracy in terms of an organization and management functions refers to the following six characteristics: Management by rules. A bureaucracy follows a consistent set of rules that control the functions of the organization. Management controls the lower levels of the organization's hierarchy by applying established rules in a consistent and predictable manner. Division of labor. Authority and responsibility are clearly defined and officially sanctioned. Job descriptions are specified with responsibilities and line of authority. All employees have thus clearly defined rules in a system of authority and subordination. Formal hierarchical structure. An organization is organized into a hierarchy of authority and follows a clear chain of command. The hierarchical structure effectively delineates the lines of authority and the subordination of the lower levels to the upper levels of the hierarchical structure. Personnel hired on grounds of technical competence. Appointment to a position within the organization is made on the grounds of technical competence. Work is assigned based on the experience and competence of the individual. Managers are salaried officials. A manager is a salaried official and does own the administered unit. All elements of a bureaucracy are defined with clearly defined roles and responsibilities and are managed by trained and experienced specialists. Written documents. All decisions, rules and actions taken by the organization are formulated and recorded in writing. Written documents ensure that there is continuity of the organization’s policies and procedures.

CHAPTER 4
Explain the basic structures and functions of Malaysian parliaments (25M)
The Malaysia Parliament House is a symbol of democracy for Malaysia which practices parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch as the paramount ruler. This is where our laws are made and amended. It stands regally atop a hill close to the Kuala Lumpur Lake Gardens and National Monument of Malaysia.
The Malaysia Parliament House consist of a 3-storey rectangular main building which houses two national assembly halls. They are the Dewan Rakyat or the Lower House of Representatives, and the Dewan Negara or the Senate. Atop this main building are the majestic looking triangular concrete structures.
Next to this main building is the 17-storey tower block which houses the offices of the cabinet ministers and representatives of both houses. At the top of the tower is an open sided terrace that afford a spectacular view of capital city of Kuala Lumpur.
The Malaysia Parliament House is constructed with heat and light absorbing glass. The design of the tower block resembles that of a pineapple with beehive-like 'kerawang' or ornamental patterns. This provides a controlled environment for light and heat within.
One outstanding feature of the Malaysian Parliament House is the water distribution system which provides treated water which is dyed blue to prevent the growth of moss. It begin from the top of the buildings and continues throughout.
Other Facilities
Other facilities in the tower block are:
·         surau or Muslim prayer room
·         banquet hall with a capacity of 500 pax
·         royalty room for the Malaysian King
·         library
·         press room and lounge
·         canteen.
There is also a deer park within the compounds of the Parliament House. Here you will find dozens of deer running freely about within the park.
The Malaysia Parliament consist of
·         The King or Yang Di-Pertuan Agong
·         The Senate or Dewan Negara with 70 appointed Senators
·         The House of Representative or Dewan Rakyat
It is divided into three separate and independent parts, namely:
·         Legislative - Parliament
·         Judiciary
·         Executive or Administrative
The Dewan Rakyat
These are Members of Parliament (MP) who were elected in the present election. There are 222 elected MPs. 140 MPs are with the ruling Barisan National and 82 are with the oposition Pakatan Rakyat. They will serve as MPs until the dissolution of Parliament pending the next general election.



The Dewan Negara
The Dewan Negara is made up of 70 appointed members known as Senators. The 13 State Legislative Assembly each appoints 2 senators. The King appoints another 44 senators, on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Each term of senatorship is for 3 years. Each senator may serve up to a maximum of 2 terms. The tenure of the Dewan Negara is not determined by the dissolution of Parliament.
Functions of the Malaysia Parliament
Being the legislative authority of the nation, it makes laws applicable to the whole Federation of Malaysia. It functions are to:
·         pass federal laws
·         make amendments to the law as the need arise
·         examine government policies
·         approve government expenditure
·         approve new taxes
·         act as a forum for public opinion and criticism of national affairs
Passing of a Bill
A bill will customarily start from the Dewan Rakyat. If it is approved here it gets promoted to the Dewan Negara where it is subject to another debate before it is presented to the King for his royal consent. Once it passes this stage it will be gazetted thus making it law.
Planning Your Visit
To visit the Malaysian Parliament you will first need to write a letter of application, addressed to: Head of Administration for Parliament Parliamentary Department of Malaysia Parliament Building 50680 Kuala Lumpur
You must include your telephone and fax numbers.
Dress Code to Visit The Parliament
If you are successful in your application, you are to observe the following dress rule:
Men
·         either wear a traditional Baju Melayu with songkok or a formal office attire with necktie.
·         Proper working or business shoes are compulsory.
·         Do not come in sport shoes or sneakers.
Ladies
·         must be decently dressed.
·         You must have clothings that cover all your 'assets', namely your knees and shoulders. And do not wear any body hugging outfit or t-shirts.
Students
·         must be in full school uniform.
Do and Don'ts During Your Visit
On your day of visit do bring the letter of approval for your visit together with your identification papers, namely your passport or Malaysian Identity Card.
You are to observe the no-smoking rule within the Parliament area. And do not take photographs while inside the Malaysia Parliament House.




CHAPTER 5
Any two central agencies and their function (25M)
MAMPU
FUNCTION
·         Planning, developing, monitoring and evaluating the execution of EG's project;
·         Coordinate, execute and monitor change management activities;
·         To coordinate, execute and monitor training and TOT activities for EG projects where MAMPU is given the responsibility as the lead agency;
·         Coordinate execution of EG projects under Federal Government, Statutory Body, State Government, State And Local Authority Statutory Body;
·         Advisory and consultation services;
·         Carry out impact study and propose project improvement and
·         Monitoring and coordinating the implementation of the Public Sector websites
FUNCTIONS OF THE SECTION
Federal Agencies And Federal Statutory Body Section
Planning and Implementing EG Projects
·         To conceptualise, plan and strategise the implementation of EG projects for Federal Agencies and Federal Statutory Body.
·         To determine the requirements of Electronic Government (EG) projects identified. The requirements include ICT security, technology used, data centre, financial, personnel, skill/training, and other related matters.
·         To roll out related EG projects to all Federal Agencies and Federal Statutory Body.
·         To plan, strategize and lead cross agency integration initiatives
Monitoring EG Project Implementation
·         To monitor the implementation of EG projects through various mechanisms which include:
1.       Electronic Government Coordination Committee Meetings (EGCOM);
2.       Project Steering Committee Meetings;
3.       Project Technical Committee Meetings;
4.       Other meetings organized from time to time to monitor project implementation; and
5.       Visits to Federal Agencies and Federal Statutory agencies.
Planning and Coordinating Promotions Programme
·         To plan and coordinate promotions programme for EG projects
Planning and Managing EG Impact Study
·         To plan and manage EG impact study.
Planning, Monitoring & Coordinating EG Change Management Activities
·         To plan, monitor and coordinate change management activities with implementing agencies where MAMPU is the lead agency.
Planning, Monitoring and Coordinating Transfer of Technology (TOT) Implementation
·         To plan, manage and monitor TOT activities for EG projects with implementing agencies where MAMPU is the lead agency.
Provide Advisory Services
·         To provide advisory services for EG projects implemented.
State Government and Statutory Bodies Section
Planning and Implementing EG Projects
·         To plan, conceptualise and strategise the implementation of EG projects for State Agencies and State Statutory Bodies.
·         To determine the requirements of Electronic Government (EG) projects identified. These include ICT security, technology used, data centre, financial, personnel, skill/training, and other related matters
·         To roll out related EG projects to all State Agencies and State Statutory Bodies.
·         To plan, strategize and lead cross agency integration initiatives.
Monitoring EG Project Implementation
·         To monitor the implementation of EG projects through various mechanisms which include:
1.       Electronic Government Coordination Committee Meeting (EGCOM) ;
2.       Project Steering Committee Meeting;
3.       Project Technical Committee Meeting;
4.       Other meetings organized from time to time to monitor project implementation; and
5.       Visits to State Agencies and State Statutory Bodies implementing EG projects.
Planning and Coordinating Promotions Programme
·         To plan and coordinate promotional programme for EG projects implemented.
Planning and Managing EG Impact Study
·         To plan and manage EG impact study.
Planning, Monitoring & Coordinating EG Change Management Activities
·         To plan, monitor and coordinate change management activities with implementing agencies for EG projects where MAMPU plays the role as lead agency.
Planning, Monitoring and Coordinating Transfer of Technology (TOT) Implementation
·         To plan, manage and monitor TOT activities for EG projects with implementing agencies where MAMPU plays the role as lead agency.
Providing Advisory Services
·         To provide advisory services in the implementation of EG projects.
Local Government Authority Section
Planning and Implementing EG Projects
·         To plan, conceptualise and strategise the implementation of EG projects for Local Authorities.
·         To determine the requirements of Electronic Government (EG) projects identified. These include ICT security, technology used, data centre, financial, personnel, skill/training, and other related matters.
·         To roll out related EG projects to all Local Authority.
·         To plan, strategize and lead cross agency integration initiatives.
Monitoring EG Project Implementation
·         To monitor the implementation of EG projects through various mechanisms which include:
1.       Electronic Government Coordination Committee Meeting (EGCOM) ;
2.       Project Steering Committee Meeting;
3.       Project Technical Committee Meeting;
4.       Other meetings organized from time to time to monitor project implementation; and
5.       Visits to Local Authorities implementing EG projects.
Planning and Coordinating Promotional Programme
·         To plan and coordinate promotions programme for EG projects implemented.
Planning and Managing EG Impact Study
·         To plan and manage EG impact study.
Planning, Monitoring & Coordinating EG Change Management Activities
·         To plan, monitor and coordinate change management activities with implementing agencies where MAMPU is the lead agency.
Planning, Monitoring and Coordinating Transfer of Technology (TOT) Implementation
·         To plan, manage and monitor TOT activities for EG projects with implementing agencies where MAMPU is the lead agency.
Provide Advisory Services
·         To provide advisory services for EG projects implemented.
Website Management Section
Responsible in various aspects such as:
·         To monitor the compliance of Public Sectors websites including federal and state level to the criteria that is outlined in the General Circular No. 1 Year 2006 – “Public Sector Website/Portal Management”
·         To monitor the compliance of Public Sectors websites to the criteria that is outlined in the global level evaluation conducted by the Brookings Institution.
·         To monitor the compliance of Public Sectors websites according to instructions from the higher management from time to time.
·         To provide consultation to the Government agencies in developing and managing website for example as panel for ministry/department/state website competition.
·         To present paper regarding General Circular No. 1 Year 2006 and evaluation by Brookings Institution at the agencies site.
·         To organise the Website Management Clinic as a platform for the Government agencies to share their knowledge related to website development.
·         To expose the Public Sectors webmasters and ICT managers about the latest technologies by conducting workshop series.
·         To share the information on the global best practises with the Government agencies in order to strengthen their websites.
·         To conduct research and analysis on the reports that are related to Public Sector websites evaluations which are published by the outsiders or non-Government agencies.
·         To present papers related to website management in programmes that are organised by the Government agencies.
·         To manage and monitor the implementation of the e- Services project
1.       Resolve issues that are related to the existing e-Services project
2.       Expand the services under the e-Services project to the related agencies.
Support Service Unit
Responsible in various aspects such as:
·         Provide administrative support to the EG Development and Management Division.
·         Coordinate human resource development matters such as personnel training and participation in conferences/seminars/ local and overseas visits.
·         To coordinate all inputs or status reports from the Division for meetings, stakeholders or external parties.
·         Provide support services in the area of:
1.       Financial management
2.       Administrative management
3.       Quality management; and
4.       Service management.


JPA

earliest Divisions in PSD
The four earliest Divisions that were established in the Public Service Department were Establishment Division, Service Division, Training Hall for Government Officers and General Administration Division.
1.       The Establishment Division
This division comprised two branches, the Establishment and Supervision Branch and the Schemes of Service Branch. The division was generally responsible for managing and controlling the rules and terms of service of government officers and handling establishment matters for state and federal departments, including federal posts in Sabah and Sarawak. The main activities at the time were the establishment of new schemes of service, monitoring the advertisement of vacant posts in the public service, conducting research on the applications for relaxation of conditions of schemes of service particularly those related to the Malay language examination, preparing research papers on post establishment and inspectorate visits to determine the number of posts required by the Ministries, federal departments and states.
2.       The Service Division
This division comprised four branches and functions as follows:
a.       The Promotion and Disciplinary Branch was responsible for the establishment of the Promotion Board and Disciplinary Board in ministries and federal agencies. This branch also reviewed and recorded the Annual Confidential Report of about 3,800 officers in 50 schemes of service.
b.       The Pension Branch comprised two units namely, the Pension Unit and the Widows and Orphans Unit. The Pension Unit managed all matters related to pension, gratuities, accident allowances and Workmen’s Compensation, policies pertaining to the Employees Provident Fund and issues and problems related to pension and other allowances for the Armed Forces. The Widows and Orphans Unit was responsible for the implementation of the Widows and Orphans Pension Scheme for the states in West Malaysia and the formulation of policies on the Widows and Orphans Pension Scheme for East Malaysia.
c.       The Common-users Service Branch was responsible for the management of recruitment, placement, transfer and training of officers under the Common-users Service which covered Administrative Services, Works Officer Service and the Clerical Services.
d.       The Other Services Branch acted as the coordinator on policies, issues and problems faced by those services which were excluded from the Common-users Service, especially those related to in-service examinations. This branch also updated and maintained the record of service for every government officer that totalled about 300,000 at the time. This branch was merged with the Government Record Centre to improve the efficiency of data collection and updating of public servants.

On 9 June 1970, the Pension Section was taken out of the Service Division and merged with the Pension Section of the National Audit Department and upgraded to a division to reflect the widening scope and function performed at the time. The new division was known as the Pension Division with a total of 49 posts. The Service Division has been reorganised from time to time that saw it taking on the additional function of career development for public servants. As a result, its name was changed to the Service and Career Development Division. In 1996, this division was renamed the Service Division in line with its main objective to ensure that the public service has excellent members through the formulation and implementation of strategic service and career policies. This objective is the key to the realisation of an efficient, strong and effective human resource development
 
3.       Training Hall for Government Officers
To strengthen the administrative system, a building located about eight miles from Port Dickson town was rented by the Government as a training centre for the administrative officers in September 1959. In the early stage of its establishment, the place was known as Training Hall for Government Officers and was administrated under The Federal Establishment Office. The institution that was equipped with 16 bedrooms furnished with bathrooms and toilets was run as residence training centre concept. The first Principal of the institution was B.W.B Chapman while Mr. Abdul Majid Bin Mohd Yusoff was the first local officer appointed to be the Principal of the Training Hall in 1962. The objective of this institute was to train the administrative officers (Division I & II) in the area of land, finance, office management and local government administration. Training was also given to the young officers such as MCS officers, MAS and State Administrative Officers. The courses were conducted in the classroom only.
 
4.       The General Administration Division
In addition to the major functions performed by the three Divisions, the administration of staff, inter-division coordination and the department’s finances were managed by the General Administration Division. In 1976, the Government Officers’ Record Centre which was formerly part of the Service Division, was taken out and placed under the General Administration Division to ensure the smooth running of its operations. Later, the Government Officers’ Record Centre was reorganised in line with the emphasis on developments in information and communication technology at the time, and its name changed to Information Technology Division.

CHAPTER 6
Discuss four roles of human resource department in public sector (25M)
In public sector, the average role of staff administration does not have much dissimilarity to private sector. Only that its responsibility in public sector is wider and more complicated because of the organization size of public sector is bigger. In Malaysia, the main role of staff administration in public sector is played by Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam who responsible to legislate policies concerning to staff and staff services from the employment stage until retirement stage.
Even in the current science and technology era, the importance of human resource cannot be neglected. Human resource has the same importance as machine and modern equipments used in organization. The productivity of an organization, whether public or private sector, still depends on the ability of staff energy.
If the staffs are treat with care, given the appropriate salary, enough rest and holiday, appropriate medication and other aspect, welfare, and comfortable working environment, the staff will feel comfortable to work without wasting their time to think personal or family problems. For the organization that neglect the welfare of their staff, surely there will be dissatisfaction among the staff and due to the dissatisfaction, the staff will not give the appropriate contribution to the organization. This will effect the performance of the organization.
This is where the importance of staff administration which is to manage human resource effectively so that the utilization of their energy will produce maximum production. There are several important role of staff administration :
1)       Staff administration must employ suitable staff that really qualifies to fill the position. At the same time, the usage of staff must be systematically planned so that it will not exceed or less than the requirement. The inappropriate amount of staff will effect the organization performance.
If the employee is exceed the requirement, organization has to spend more to pay the salary of staff that they do not need. On the other hand, if there is not enough staff, this will create problem in term of implementation of task within the given period. Sometimes, a simple task will take longer time to finish because of the lack of staff.
2)       Staff administration also needs to prepare appropriate rules that suit with organization demand as well as the rules do not too control of the staff. The rules also must able to help workers and create a good working environment, not the kind of rule that tries to control and punish the staff.

3)       Staff administration must create a reward system which suitable with every level of position in the organization. The salary must be appropriate with the work done by the staff. If the salary is too high, this can be overwhelming for the organization to defray as the cost will increase. Whereas, if the salary is too low will create dissatisfaction among the workers. As the result, the staff will not work efficiently.

4)       Establish a good communication system in organization so that all information is disseminate to all departments and level of positions within the given period of time. This is important so that all parties can be understand any events occur in organization and obtain clear and complete information about their organization. Through this system, staff will understand clearly their position and responsibility and further help organization to achieve its objective.
The above points are the main role of Staff Administration is an organization. When Staff Administration able to plays the above roles efficiently and effectively, it can help increase the organization performance.  The staff with appropriate service scheme, appropriate training, promotion opportunity and good career development, and comfortable working environment, will have high motivation to work in the organization. This element can increase organization productivity as the worker is free from problem and surrounded with comfortable environment for them to work. Therefore, it is staff administration responsibility to ensure that these roles are played effectively so that staff effort and contribution can be realization.

CHAPTER 7
Explain 4 reasons why an administrative tribunal is not similar to the court of law (25M)
Firstly, the administrative tribunals, rendering administrative justice, is a by-product of
the Welfare State. In the 18th and 19th centuries when 'laissez faire' theory held sway, the
law courts emerged as the custodians of the rights and liberties of the individual citizens.
Sometimes they protected the rights of all citizens at the cost of state authority. With the
emergence of Welfare State, social interest began to be given precedence over the
individual rights. With the development of collective control over the conditions of
employment, manner of living and the elementary necessities of the people, there has
arisen the need for a technique of adjudication better fitted to respond to the social
requirements of the time than the elaborate and costly system of decision making
provided by the courts of law. In brief, 'judicialisation of administration' proved a
potential instrument for enforcing social policy and legislation.
Secondly, in view of the rapid growth and expansion of industry, trade and commerce,
ordinary law courts are not in a position to cope up with the work-load. With the result,
enormous delay in deciding cases either way, takes place. Therefore, a number of
administrative tribunals have been established in the country, which can do the work
more rapidly, more cheaply and more efficiently than the ordinary courts.
Thirdly, law courts, on account of their elaborate procedures, legalistic fortns and
attitudes can hardly render justice to the parties concerned, in technical cases. Ordinary
judges, brought up in the traditions of law and jurisprudence, are not capable enough to
understand technical problems, which crop up in the wake of modem complex economic
and social processes. Only administrators having expert knowledge can tackle such
problems judiciously. To meet this requirement, a number of admjnistrative tribunals
have come into existence.
Fourthly, a good number of situations are such that they require quick and firm action.
Otherwise the interests of-the people may be jeopardized. For instance, ensuring of safety
measures in local mines, prevention of illegal transactions in foreign exchange and unfair
business practices necessitate prompt action. Such cases, if are to be dealt with in the
ordinary courts of law, would cause immense loss to the state exchequer and undermine
national interest. However, the administrative courts presided over by the experts would
ensure prompt and fair action.



CHAPTER 8
Define financial administration (5M)
The term Financial Administration consists of two words.  'Finance' and 'Administration'.  The word 'administration' refers to organization and management of collective human efforts in the pursuit of a conscious objective.  The word 'finance' refers to monetary resource.  Financial administration refers to a set of activities which are related to making available money to the various branches of an organization to enable it to carry out its objects.  Whether it is a family, business or a government department, its day to day activities depend on the availability of funds with which financial administration is concerned.
According to L. D. White "Fiscal Management includes those operations designed to make funds available to officials and to ensure their lawful and efficient use."

According to Jaze Gaston "Financial Administration is that part of government organization which deals with the collection, preservation and distribution of public funds, with the coordination of public revenue and
expenditure, with the management of credit operations on behalf of the State and with the general control of the financial affairs of public household".

Even though these definitions covers some important aspects of fiscal management, it fails to project a comprehensive scope of financial administration.  G. S. Lall states that financial administration is concerned with all the aspects of financial management of the State.  Since public administration is more and more concerned with public  affairs and public interest, the frontiers of financial administration are expanding and therefore there is a need for a comprehensive definition of financial administration.  As an attempt towards this direction, the following definition is presented:

"Financial Administration includes all the activities which generate, regulate and distribute monetary resources needed for the sustenance and growth of the members of a political community."


Discuss any 4 importance aspects of financial administration (20M)
The government organization which deals with the following four aspects constitutes financial administration.  They are:

1.  The collection, preservation and distribution of public funds.
2.  The coordination of public revenues and expenditure.
3.  The management of credit operations on behalf of the State.
4.  The general control of the financial affairs of the government.
In modern governments all the above aspects are dealt with the Finance Department and its subordinate agencies.  Though the Finance Department may be considered as central financial agnecy of modern governments, it cannot be equated with financial administration.  Its role constitutes financial management rather than financial administration.  As a financial manager it deals with the systems, tools and techniques contributing to economic decision making in government.  These process are, in fact, the integral part of financial administration.  The scope of financial administration is much wider than what these processes suggest.
According to some authorities on public administration, the term financial administration refers to the financial processes and institutions involved in legislative financial control.  In their view, the scope of financial administration encompasses the preparation of estimates, appropriation of funds, expenditure control, accounting, audit, reporting, review and so on.  In a democratic context, this view may gain wider acceptance as it ensures executive responsibility to legislature.  But, the experience of modern democracies has shown that the legislative involvement in the determination of the desired volume, range and direction of programs, the use of independent judgment relating to the financial resources required by administrative agencies is becoming nominal day by day.  It is known fact that the average member of the legislature is not adequately informed to ensure effective control over executive.  Thus, the view appears to be of no significant validity.  Further, legislative control of financial aspects of the government does not represent the scope of financial administration in its entirety.
Yet another view advocates a budget oriented outline for the scope of financial administration.  According to them the scope of financial administration is limited to the preparation of budget, the enactment of budget and execution of budget.  Though the budget is the core of financial administration, certain operations which precede budget preparation are equally important.  There is a pertinent need to include planning process as an integral part of financial administration.

In the ultimate analysis, there is a need to adopt an integrated approach so that all the above vies are incorporated into the scope of public administration.  As an outcome of such an approach, the following aspects emerge as the core areas of financial administration.

1.  Financial planning
2.  Budgeting
3.  Resource mobilisation
4.  Investment decisions
5.  Expenditure control
6.  According, Reporting and auditing

Financial Planning:


1.  Financial Planning:
  In a restrictive sense one may consider budgeting as planning since its basic concern is to facilitate the formulation and adoption of policies and programs with a view to achieving the goals of government.  But planning, in a broad sense, includes the concerns in terms of whole range of government policy and it demands a time frame and a perception of the inter relationships among policies.  It looks at a policy in the framework of long-term economic consequences.  there is a need to coordinate planning and budgeting.  The concept of Planning Programing Budgeting System represents an attempt in this direction. Financial Administration, under this phase, should consider the sources and forms of finance, forcasting expenditure needs, desirable fund flow patterns and so on. 2.  Budgeting:  This area is the core of financial administration.  It includes examination and formulation of such important aspects as fiscal plicy, equity and social justice.  It also deals with principles and practices associated with refinement of budgetary system and its operative processes.
3.  Resource Mobilization: 
Imposition of taxes, collection of rates and taxes etc. are associated with resource mobilization effort.  Due to the ever increasing commitments of government, budgetary deficits have become regular feature of government finance.  In this context deficit financing assumes greater importance.  But deficit financing, if used in an unrestrained manner, may prove to be a dangerous problem for a nation's economy for it can cause galloping inflation.  Another challenge faced by administration is tax evasion and growth of parallel economy.  Financially public debt constitutes yet another element of state resources.  The proceeds of debt mobilization effort should be used only for capital financing.  Thus, modern financial administrator effort should be used only for capital financing.  Thus, modern financial administrator has to be fully conversant with all the dimensions of resource mobilization efforts.
4.  Investment Decisions:
  Financial and socio-economic appraisal of capital expenditure constitutes what has come to be known as project appraisal.  Since massive investments have been made in the public sector a thorough knowledge of the concepts, techniques and methodology of project appraisal is indispensable for a financial administrator. 5.  Expenditure control:  Finances of the modern government are becoming quite inelastic.  Almost every government is suffering from resource crunch.  Further, the society cannot be taxed beyond a certain point without doing a great damage to the economy as a whole.  Thus, there is an imperative need for careful utilization of resources.  Executive control is a process aimed at achieving this ideal.  Legislative control is aimed at the protection of the individual tax payers interest as well as public interest.  There is also the need to ensure the accountability of the executive to the legislature. 
6.  Accounting, reporting and auditing: 
These aspects are designed to aid both the executive control and legislative control.  In India, the Comptroller and Auditor General (C & AG) and the Indian audit and Accounts Department over which the C & AG presides ensure that the accounting and audit functions are performed in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.




CHAPTER 9
Define public policy (5M)
In any society, governmental entities enact laws, make policies, and allocate resources. This is true at all levels. Public policy can be generally defined as a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives.              
Individuals and groups often attempt to shape public policy through education, advocacy, or mobilization of interest groups. Shaping public policy is obviously different in Western-style democracies than in other forms of government. But it is reasonable to assume that the process always involves efforts by competing interest groups to influence policy makers in their favor.

A major aspect of public policy is law. In a general sense, the law includes specific legislation and more broadly defined provisions of constitutional or international law. There are many ways that the law can influence how survivors of violence against women are treated and the types of services they receive. Likewise, legislation identifies areas in which research grants can be funded and often determines the amount of funding allocated. Thus, it is not surprising that public policy debates occur over proposed legislation and funding.

In this context, advocacy can be defined as attempting to influence public policy through education, lobbying, or political pressure. Advocacy groups often attempt to educate the general public as well as public policy makers about the nature of problems, what legislation is needed to address problems, and the funding required to provide services or conduct research. Although advocacy is viewed as unseemly by some in the professional and research community, it is clear that public policy priorities are influenced by advocacy. Sound research data can be used to educate the public as well as policy makers, thereby improving the public policy process.
Eloborate on 5 steps involve in policy making (20M)
Experts who study public policy have identified four main steps in the public policy process. These steps include the identification of a problem, the formulation of a policy change to solve the problem, the implementation of that policy change, and the evaluation of whether the solution is working as desired. In this way, public policy process can be seen as the steps a government takes to address a public problem.
The first step in the public policy process is the identification of a problem. This step involves not only recognizing the existence of an issue, but also in-depth study of the problem and its history. This stage of the process often involves determining who is affected, how aware the public is of the issue and whether it is a short or long-term concern. Another key question centers on whether altering public policy can effect change. Answers to such questions may give policy makers a gauge for which policy changes, if any, are needed to address the identified problem.
After identifying and studying the problem, a public policy solution is usually formulated and adopted. This step in the public policy process is usually marked by discussion and debate between governmental officials, interest groups, and individual citizens over how best to address the issue. The general purpose of this step is to set clear goals and list the steps to achieve them. The formulation stage often also includes a discussion of alternative solutions, potential obstacles, and how to measure the effects of the policy change. In the United States, policy formulation and adoption is usually led by the Legislative Branch of the government.
A third stage in the public policy process is the implementation of policy changes. This step usually includes defining the agencies and organizations involved and distributing responsibilities to each. To be successful, this stage usually requires agency communication and cooperation, sufficient funds and staff, and overall compliance to the new approach. The departments and agencies in the Executive Branch are usually responsible for implementing public policy changes in the United States.
The final stage in the process, known as evaluation and maintenance, is typically an ongoing one. While the importance of this step has not always been emphasized, modern policy makers often incorporate tools for evaluation into the formulation stage. This final step usually involves study of how effective the policy change is in addressing the original problem, and often leads to further public policy manipulation. This part of the process is generally implemented through a cooperative effort between policy managers and independent evaluators.

CHAPTER 10
The ninth Malaysia plan (25M)

The Malaysian government has launched its Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010, a comprehensive five-year national development plan. According to the plan, the timber industry in Malaysia is expected to remain a major contributor to export earnings. By 2020, export earnings from downstream and value-added products, such as furniture, panel products, MDF and plywood, are projected to reach 53 billion ringgit ($14.4 billion).

To remain competitive, the timber industry would require expanding the utilization of technological automation as well as enhancing the use of human capital. Although such technology is already available, the industry is reluctant to invest in automation as cheap foreign labour is available and most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) face financial constraints. Furthermore, the furniture industry would need to move up the value chain in order to remain competitive in the global marketplace. This would require the industry to undertake designing and branding of its own products to become own design manufacturers (ODM) and own brand name manufacturers.

The total investment of the timber industry for the Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006-2010 period is targeted at 25.4 billion ringgit or 1.7 billion ringgit a year. Exports are projected to grow at an annual rate of 6.4% to reach 53 billion ringgit by year 2020. To achieve the targets set for the industry, eight strategic thrusts have been put in place:

1. Developing regional production and supply chain;
2. Promoting the efficient and effective management of forest resources and forest plantations;
3. Expanding market access through intensified marketing and the promotion of Malaysia ‘green’ image;
4. Developing and promoting the growth potential in:
• Utilization of lesser promoted species, non-wood fibres and wood waste materials;
• Production of higher value-added wood products.
5. Expanding the production of own design and brand furniture;
6. Enhancing R&D and technological development;
7. Increasing the supply of skilled workforce; and
8. Strengthening the institutional support and improving the delivery system related to the industry.


















1 comment:

  1. terima kasih jawapan yang sangat berguna . :)

    ReplyDelete